"If slaughterhouses had glass walls
everyone would be a vegetarian."  
Paul McCartney
A Wholistic and Futuristic Perspective
ALIEN EXPERIENCES
T
aken from the files of
renowned researcher and
psychotherapist,
Barbara
Lamb, and co-authored by
Nadine Lalich,
this book
recounts in amazing detail
25  cases of close
encounter.
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DARPA: US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agencyy
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) was established in 1958 to prevent
strategic surprise from negatively impacting U.S. national security and create strategic surprise for U.
S. adversaries by maintaining the technological superiority of the U.S. military.

To fulfill its mission, the Agency relies on diverse performers to apply multi-disciplinary approaches to
both advance knowledge through basic research and create innovative technologies that address
current practical problems through applied research.  DARPA’s scientific investigations span the
gamut from laboratory efforts to the creation of full-scale technology demonstrations in the fields of
biology, medicine, computer science, chemistry, physics, engineering, mathematics, material
sciences, social sciences, neurosciences and more.  As the DoD’s primary innovation engine, DARPA
undertakes projects that are finite in duration but that create lasting revolutionary change.

Electronic Warfare:

Military operations are executed in an information environment increasingly complicated by the
electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. The recognized need for military forces to have unimpeded access to
and use of EM environments creates vulnerabilities and opportunities for electronic warfare (EW).
This focus area examines approaches to increase operational bandwidth, linearity and efficiency of
electronic systems; the development of adaptive and reconfigurable radio architectures; and
techniques to leverage spectral domains such as millimeter wave (MMW) and sub-MMW bands.

Position, Navigation and Timing

For decades, Global Positioning System (GPS) technology has been incorporated into vehicles and
munitions to meet rigid requirements for guidance and navigation. As a result, a substantial number of
DoD systems are dependent on GPS data to provide accurate position, direction of motion, and time
information. This dependence creates a critical vulnerability for many DoD systems in situations where
the GPS signal is compromised. Through this focus area, MTO seeks to develop technologies for self-
contained, chip-scale inertial navigation and precision guidance.

Micro-Technology for Positioning, Navigation and Timing (Micro-PNT)Warfighters have depended for
decades on global positioning satellite (GPS) technology, and have incorporated it into guided
munitions and other platforms to meet rigid requirements for guidance and navigation.  

The goal of the Micro-Technology for Positioning, Navigation and Timing (Micro-PNT) program is to
develop technology for self-contained, chip-scale inertial navigation and precision guidance for
munitions as well as mounted or dismounted soldiers. Size, weight, power, and cost (SWaP+C) are
key concerns in the overall system design of compact navigation systems. Breakthroughs in
microfabrication techniques may allow for the development of a single package containing all of the
necessary devices (clocks, accelerometers, and gyroscopes) incorporated into a small (8 mm3) low-
power (1 W) timing and inertial measurement unit. On-chip calibration should enable periodic internal
error correction to reduce drift and thereby enable more accurate devices. Trending away from ultra-
low drift sensors towards self-calibrating devices will allow revolutionary breakthroughs in PNT
technology.

In January 2010, DARPA launched a coordinated effort focused on the development of
microtechnology specifically addressing the challenges associated with miniaturization of high-
precision clocks and inertial instruments. The  Micro-PNT program is comprised of three thrust areas:
Clocks, Inertial Sensors,  and Microscale Integration. Each area is made up of various efforts
exploring new fabrication techniques, deep integration, and on-chip self-calibration, which go hand-in-
hand with the development of “plug-and-test” architectures.





Journey of Discovery Starts toward Understanding and Treating Networks of the BrainMay 27, 2014


SUBNETS program includes two complementary research pathways that emphasize neural plasticity
and single-neuron recording     

Work on DARPA’s Systems-Based Neurotechnology for Emerging Therapies (SUBNETS) program is
set to begin with teams led by UC San Francisco (UCSF), and Massachusetts General Hospital
(MGH). The SUBNETS program seeks to reduce the severity of neuropsychological illness in service
members and veterans by developing closed-loop therapies that incorporate recording and analysis
of brain activity with near-real-time neural stimulation. The program, which will use next-generation
devices inspired by current Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) technology, was launched in support of
President Obama’s brain initiative.  

UCSF and MGH will oversee teams of physicians, engineers, and neuroscientists who are working
together to develop advanced brain interfaces, computational models of neural activity, and clinical
therapies for treating networks of the brain. The teams will collaborate with commercial industry and
government, including researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Medtronic, to
apply a broad range of perspectives to the technological challenges involved.

SUBNETS is premised on the understanding that brain function—and  dysfunction, in the case of
neuropsychological illness—plays out across distributed neural systems, as opposed to being strictly
relegated to distinct anatomical regions of the brain. The program also aims to take advantage of
neural plasticity, a feature of the brain by which the organ’s anatomy and physiology can alter over
time to support normal brain function. Plasticity runs counter to previously held ideas that the adult
brain is a “finished” entity that can be statically mapped. Because of plasticity, researchers are
optimistic that the brain can be trained or treated to restore normal functionality following injury or the
onset of neuropsychological illness.    

“The brain is very different from all other organs because of its networking and adaptability,” said
Justin Sanchez, the DARPA program manager for SUBNETS. “Real-time, closed-loop neural
interfaces allow us to move beyond the traditional static view of the brain and into a realm of precision
therapy. This lack of understanding of how mental illness specifically manifests in the brain has limited
the effectiveness of existing treatment options, but through SUBNETS we hope to change that.
DARPA is looking for ways to characterize which regions come into play for different conditions—
measured from brain networks down to the single neuron level—and develop therapeutic devices that
can record activity, deliver targeted stimulation, and most importantly, automatically adjust therapy as
the brain itself changes. The research teams we selected for SUBNETS will pursue bold approaches
to reach those goals and we’re excited to get started because this research could prove to be
transformative for people with mental illness.”

The UCSF team’s approach is to develop a device that focuses on regions of the brain involved in an
individual’s psychiatric or neurologic disease. The device will use direct recording, stimulation, and
therapeutic approaches to encourage neural plasticity, with the aim of rehabilitating the circuits that
appear to be driving pathology and free an individual from psychiatric or neurologic symptoms. If
successful, the approach would allow for the eventual removal of the device.

The MGH team will pursue a “trans-diagnostic” approach to assessing common components of
psychiatric and neurologic diseases—traits common to many such syndromes, including increased
anxiety, impaired recall, or inappropriate reactions to stimuli—through qualitative and quantitative
behavioral testing combined with high-fidelity, real-time single-neuron recordings. If successful, this
method will allow investigators to follow the traces of pathology from individually firing neurons, up
through imaging studies of neural network behavior, and into tests that can be performed in the
clinical setting. It could also lead to more targeted treatments for psychiatric disease and advance
clinicians’ ability to make accurate diagnoses. The MGH team will also work with Draper Laboratories
to deploy state-of-the-art advances in micro-fabrication of electronics, with the goal of generating a
sophisticated, implantable device that will remain safe and effective through the lifetime of the
recipient.

The SUBNETS program plan calls for research to be conducted over the next five years along a
schedule of prescribed milestones, culminating in technology demonstrations and submission of
devices for approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

“DARPA is in the business of creating not just science, but new technologies,” Sanchez said. “The
neurotechnologies we will work to develop under SUBNETS could give new tools to the medical
community to treat patients who don’t respond to other therapies, and new knowledge to the
neuroscience community to expand the understanding of brain function. We believe this will be a
foundational program.”

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Usage Agreement, available at: http://go.usa.gov/nYr.

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