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\A mind machine uses pulsing rhythmic sound and/or flashing light to alter the brainwave frequency of the user. Mind
machines are said to induce deep states of relaxation, concentration, and in some cases altered states of consciousness that
have been compared to those obtained from meditation and shamanic exploration.[citation needed]

The process applied by these machines is also known as brainwave synchronisation or entrainment.

Mind machines typically consist of a control unit, a pair of headphones and/or strobe light goggles. The unit controls the
sessions and drives the LEDs in the goggles. Professionally, they are usually referred to as Auditory Visual Stimulation

Sessions will typically aim at directing the average brainwave frequency from a high level to a lower level by ramping down in
several sequences. Target frequencies typically correspond to delta (1-3 hertz), theta (4–7 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz) or beta brain
waves (13–40 Hz), and can be adjusted by the user based on the desired effects.

There have been a number of claims regarding binaural beats, among them that they may help people memorize and learn,
stop smoking, tackle erectile dysfunction and improve athletic performance. Scientific research into binaural beats is very
limited. No conclusive studies have been released to support many claims. Mind machines are often used together with
biofeedback or neurofeedback equipment in order to adjust the frequency on the fly

Modern mind machines can connect to the Internet to update the software and download new sessions. When sessions are
used in conjunction with meditation, neurofeedback, etc. the effect can be amplified.

Some clinical research has been done on the use of auditory and visual stimulation to improve cognitive abilities in learning-
disabled children (research).

Safety Note:
Rapidly flashing lights may be dangerous for people with photosensitive epilepsy or other nervous disorders. It is thought that
one out of 10,000 adults will experience a seizure while viewing such a device; about twice as many children will have a similar
ill effect See alsoHemi-Sync®
Sound and Light Machines aka Mind Machines

Dr. Norman Shealy, Dr. Richard Cox In `Pain Reduction and Relaxation with Brain Wave Synchronization (Photo-Stimulation).
Study performed by the Forest Institute of Professional Psychology, Springfield, Missouri, 1990, 9pp.  

Cerebral synchronization was obtained with photic stimulation devices and tested on more than 5,000 patients suffering from
chronic pain and stress-symptoms during the `80s. A detailed study on 92 patients indicated that 88 obtained relaxation
results higher than 60% after 30- minute sessions at 10 hz. Thirty patients had sessions in Theta (5 hz) and experienced
relaxation states of 50-100% after five minutes as well as improved pain relief. Eight patients had blood tests before and after
the sessions and showed improved beta-endorphin levels of 10-50%. All of these relaxation results are improved when
combining the photic stimulation with relaxation audio tapes.

Dr. Roger K. Cady, Dr. Norman Shealy in "Neurochemical Responses to Cranial Electrical Stimulation and Photo-Stimulation
via Brain Wave Synchronization."Study performed by the Shealy Institute of Comprehensive Health Care, Springfield,
Missouri, 1990, 11 pp.:  

Eleven patients had peridural and blood analysis performed before and after the relaxation sessions using flash emitting
goggles. An average increase of beta-endorphin levels of 25% and serotonin levels of 21% were registered. The
beta-endorphin levels are comparative to those obtained by cranial electrical stimulation (CES). This indicates a potential
decrease of depression related symptoms when using photic stimulation.

Dr. Thomas Budzynski in "Biofeedback and the Twilight States of Consciousness," in G.E. Schwartz and D. Shapiro eds.,
Consciousness and Self-Regulation, vol. 1, New York, Plenum 1976 and non-published studies at the Biofeedback Institute of
Denver, 1980:  

Using a first-generation prototype, Dr. Budzynski concluded that "these devices produce a distinct relaxation state.
Programming the device between 3 and 7 hz, it takes about 10 to 15 minutes for the patients to enter--effortlessly-a state of
hypnosis. They terminate the sessions relaxed and with a feeling of well-being." Also, "the device has a calming effect on
nervous or anxious patients. In a majority of cases the patients feel relaxed and calm during a period of three to four days
after the session. It happens that the subjects have a reminiscence of childhood experiences, particularly when in Theta.
They related their experiences which we incorporated into our psychotherapeutic program."

Dr. Roman Chrucky, Medical Director of North Jersey Development Center in Totowa, New Jersey:  

"The machine works like a tranquilizer and the effect lasts for several days. Using the machines in Theta frequency, clients
are very receptive to suggestions on behavioral aspects such as reducing tobacco, alcohol and food consumptions." Dr.
Chrucky also noted during his conversations with patients that many "were more creative during the sessions."

Dr. Gene W. Brockopp, Review of Research on Multi-Modal Sensory Stimulation with Clinical Implications and Research
Proposals (non-published,1984):  

Dr. Brockopp analyzed audio-visual Brain stimulation and in particular hemispheric synchronization during EEG monitoring.
"By inducing hemispheric coherence the machine can contribute to improved intellectual functioning of the brain. Like children
spending most of their time in Theta, the machine allows a reduction in learning time. With adults a return into Theta allows
them to rediscover childhood experiences. The machine is like a `lost and found office' for the subconscious."

Dr. Brockopp conclusion is that dissipative structures allow the mind-via audio-visual stimulation-to abandon certain present
neurological structures in order to maintain a higher, more coherent and flexible state of consciousness, thus allowing for
improved communication of neuro-entities.

Dr. Norman Thomas and David Siever, University of Alberta, Florida. Several publications, notably: The Effect of Repetitive
Audio/Visual Stimulation in Skeletomotor and Vasomotor Activity, 1989:  

"We stimulated one of two groups of 30 people with a brain- stimulation device to test relaxation levels, using 10 hz frequency
while observing their muscular tension with an EMG and their index skin temperature. The second group had to relax without
machines via traditional means of autosuggestion. Most of the people in the second group said they felt relaxed while
demonstrating greater tension (EMG) and lower skin temperatures, both of which are stress and nervous tension indicators.
The group using the machine obtained deep relaxation state going beyond the programmed 15 minutes. EMG curves
confirmed relaxation of the cortex due to the frequency adoption response."

These findings were also verified by James Greene and Dr. E.J. Baukus of FOCUS Human Research Development in
Bourdonnais, Illinois. The muscular tension curve of the trapezius muscle during a MindsEyeTM (audio-visual mind-machine)
indicative of deep muscular relaxation.

Dr. Robert Cosgrove, Jr. of the anesthesia department of Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

Dr. Cosgrove proceeded in 1988 with multiple experiences with the same devices and concluded that states of deep
relaxation are obtained with these machines. "We are very optimistic about the possibilities of calming our patients before and
after surgery. By the way, we already treat chronic stress affected patients. Thus, our EEG analysis shows that optimal
cerebral functioning can be obtained with regular use of such audio-visual apparatus. The machines could eventually slow the
decreasing cerebral performance with the elderly. This type of machine could 'revolutionize neurology and medicine.'"

Elisabeth Philipos, Pepperdine University, California, and James McGaugh, University of California, Irvine, have tested the
effects of Theta frequencies on learning.  

During their study a group of 20 students learned 1,800 words of Bulgarian in 120 hours while using Theta stimulation
programs. In about 1/3 of normal time they spoke and wrote the new language.

Dale S. Foster of Memphis State University, "EEG and Subjective Correlates of Alpha Frequency Binaural Beats Stimulation
Combined with Alpha Biofeedback," 1988:  

Mr. Foster's conclusions indicate that the combination of binaural sounds with audio-visual stimulation machines allow access
into Alpha states of consciousness much faster than with traditional biofeedback techniques.

D.J. Anderson, B.Sc., M.B., "The Treatment of Migraine with Variable Frequency Photo-Stimulation," in Headache, March
1989, pp 154-155:  

D.J. Anderson used photo-stimulating goggles with variable frequency using red LEDs in order to stimulate the optic nerve,
through closed eyes, right and left with frequencies between 0.5 and 50 hz. The study included seven patients who suffered a
total of more than 50 migraines during the observation period. Forty-nine of these migraines were relieved (either by reducing
the average duration or by increasing the frequency interval in between migraine crisis) and 36 other migraines could be
stopped while using the goggles.

Dr. Glen D. Solomon, "Slow Wave Photic Stimulation in the Treatment of Headache-A Preliminary Report," in Headache,
November 1985, pp 444-447:  

Dr. Solomon works for the Department of Internal Medicine at the U.S. Air Force Medical Center in Scott, Illinois, where 24
patients with chronic headaches and migraines were treated with photic stimulation apparatus at 5-8 hz frequency. Fourteen
of 15 patients with sustained headaches and 5 of 6 patients with chronic headaches noticed complete relief after the
treatment. Four patients treated with the same photo- stimulation apparatus showed no reaction.  

Bruce Harrah-Confort, Ph.D., Indiana University, "Alpha and Theta Response to the MindsEye Plus," 1990:  

The study included 15 persons between the ages of 24 and 38 years old who were asked to relax via auto-suggestion with
headphones dispensing a synthetic sound (100 cycles at 60 hz) and then to use the audio-visual stimulator MindsEye
PlusTM. EEG graphic analysis showed that the first relaxation method did not alter the EEG-trace significantly vs. normal.
MindsEye Plus users had, however, strongly improved Alpha and Theta tracings and experienced profound relaxation. There
were also signs that would validate hemispheric synchronization during the experience.

Joseph Glickson, Department of Psychology, Tel Aviv University, "Photic Driving and Altered States of Consciousness: An
Exploratory Study," in Imagination, Cognition and Personality, vol. 6(2), 1986-87, pp 167-182:  

Four persons were exposed to photic stimulation in the 18, 10 and 6 hz ranges. A frequency response was established by two
subjects during the initial session according to EEG measurements. These persons had an altered state of consciousness,
and reported their visual and auditive experiences. The two other subjects had similar experiences during follow-on sessions.
The study concludes that photic entrainment provokes altered states of consciousness according to the applied frequencies.

Paul Williams and Michael West, Department of Psychological Medicine, University Hospital of Wales and University of Wales
Institute of Science and Technology, Cardiff, Wales, "EEG Responses to Photic Stimulation in Persons Experienced in
Meditation," in Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1975, 39, pp 519-522:  

Williams and West tested photic entrainment on two test groups of 10 people. The test group produced significantly more
Alpha waves and has smaller Alpha blocking compared to the control group familiar with traditional meditation techniques.
Alpha induction was realized faster and more frequently within the test vs. the control group.

Tsuyoshi Inouye, Noboru Sumitsuji and Kazuo Matsumoto, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Osaka University Medical School,
Japan, "EEG Changes Induced by Light Stimuli Modulated with the Subject's Alpha Rhythm," in Electroencephalography and
Clinical Neurophysiology, 1980, 49, pp 135-142:  

Seven of nine persons undergoing the test obtained occipital Alpha of both hemispheres and concurrently coherence and
phase between right and left occipital EEG. These results tend to confirm a hemispheric synchronization tendency by subjects
using photic stimulation in the 10 hz (Alpha frequency) range.

Ronald Lesser, Hans Luders, G. Klem and Dudley Dinner, Department of Neurology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, "Visual
Potentials Evoked by Light- Emitting Diodes Mounted in Goggles," in Cleveland Clinic Quarterly, vol. 52, No. 2, Summer 1985,
pp. 223-228:  

A comparison of stimulation by strobiscopic lights and LED diodes shows that both methods have similar effects. LED
stimulation may be preferable in intensive care units or during surgery because the type of stimulus is less disturbing.

Takeo Takahashi and Yasuo Tsukahara, Department of Neuropsychiatry of Tohoku University School of Medicine, Tohoku,
Japan, "Influence of Red Light and Pattern on Photic Driving;' in Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 1979, 127, pp.

With a study group of 108 persons the authors conclude that red LED generated luminescent impulses provoke better
entrainment than white stroboscopic lights.

Richard E. Townsend, Ph.D. of Neuropsychiatric Research, U.S. Naval Hospital in San Diego, "A Device for Generation and
Presentation of Modulated Light Stimuli," in Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1973, 34, pp 97-99:  

The author describes a system allowing generation and presentation of modulated light stimuli with variable frequencies and
wave forms. He concludes the possibilities of stimulation and positive responses during sleep-preparation and insomnia

Dr. William Harris, Director of the Penwell Foundation, USA in 1990:

Preliminary studies with audio-visual brain stimulators used by patients with AIDS indicate that "the devices are extremely
efficient in terms of providing mental clarity, improved sleeping patterns (for sleep preparation and sleep duration) allowing for
better physical disintoxication by the liver. The apparatus also stimulates immunology functions through states of deep

Alan Richardson and Fiona McAndrew, Department of Psychology, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Australia, "The
Effects of Photic Stimulation and Private Self-consciousness on the Complexity of Visual Imagination Imagery," in British
Journal of Psychology, 1990, 81 pp. 381-394:  

Three levels of photic stimulation (6, 10, 18 hz) were employed to induce visual imagination imagery in 40 female
undergraduates, half of them with habitual interest in their own internal states and half without such interest. More complex
images would be reported (1) under the averaged 6 to 10 hz condition, (2) under the 6 vs. the 10 hz condition, and (3) under
the high PSC (Personal Self-Conscious scale) than under the low PSC condition. The study concludes that further studies on
guided imagery will be undertaken.

Dr. Olivier Carreau, Saint-Louis Hospital in Paris, on "Efficiency of the MindsEye Plus audio-visual stimulator in treatment of
the psoriasis during puvatherapy," study completed in January 1991.  

Dr. Carreau analyzed 20 patients over a period of five months. Patients were treated one per week alternately via UVA and
audio-visual stimulation (30-minute sessions) for psychosomatic skin disorders. All patients experienced deep relaxation
during the sessions and had a feeling of well-being during the entire day. Five patients claimed that this feeling lasted for the
following 2-3 days. Patients with combined therapy did better than with puvatherapy alone.

Other Studies Studies Currently Underway

University of Illinois: Sport performance, stress reduction and gerontologic research.

San Francisco State University: Effect of brain stimulation on toxicomania.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston: Audio-visual brain stimulation and anti-dependency.

University of Alberta: Pain reduction via audio-visual stimulation.

University of Iowa: Accelerated learning and Alpha/Theta stimulation.

University of Vienna, Austria: Study realized by Dr. T. Wenzel of the Clinical Hospital for Psychiatry on the influence of
audio-visual stimulation on psychosomatic problems.

University of Zurich, Switzerland: Professor Dr. Dittrich on theory and practice of audio-visual stimulation in therapy.

University of Giessen, Germany: Professor Dr. Prehn on neurological correlations of cerebral stimulation technology
(measurements with SQUID).

Verein FOCUS, Vienna, Austria: Dr. Kapellner on the effects of deep relaxation and the access of subconsciousness during
psychiatric treatment.

Dr. Jacques Puichaud, UPEA, La Rochelle, France: On the effects of MindsEye Plus relaxation sessions compared to other
methods while treating adolescent depression.

University of Essen, Germany: Dr. Bittner on accelerated learning and Theta frequencies: effects on intelligence and

Dr. Bernard Ferracci, psychiatrist, Paris, France: On brain-frequency stimulation with the CourierTM and insomnia.

Dr. Yann Rougier, neuropsychiatrist, Lyon, France: On audio-visual stimulation devices in therapeutic treatment.

Innerspace Therapy Center, Los Gatos, California: Dr. Ammon-Wexler on the efficiency of audio-visual stimulation in anti-drug

Julian Isaacs, Ph.D. and Megabrain, Inc., San Francisco are currently studying the effects of audio-visual brain stimulation
with electronic 24- channel EEG. Preliminary conclusions indicate that these devices are particularly efficient for Alpha state
of consciousness entrainment, in particular with high-intensity LEDs (red or white).